The jet pump operates by pumping power fluid at high pressure and rate from surface to activate/drive a downhole pump. Looking at the downhole jet pump, there are three main components:
The nozzle and throat are the key components of a jet pump. The ratio of the areas of these two parts is known as the area ratio of the pump and it determines the performance characteristics of the pump. Pumps with the same area ratio have the same performance and efficiency curves
Jet Pumps operates on Venturi principle. Above the JP, before entering the nozzle, the power fluid has high pressure (designated as PN) and low flow velocity.
While the power fluid passes the nozzle, due to the decrease in flow area it is transformed from low velocity, high static pressure flow to a high velocity, low static pressure flow (PS). This creates a pressure drop below the nozzle which drives the reservoir fluids into the pump.
The term “centrifugal pump” has been used to describe a wide variety of pumping applications and designs throughout the years. A Centrifugal Pump is a machine that moves fluid by spinning it with a rotating impeller in a diffuser that has a central inlet and a tangential outlet. The path of the fluid is an increasing spiral from the inlet at the center to the outlet tangent to the diffuser. The fluid rotational motion is the result of the concept of centrifugal forces.
The pressure (head) develops against the inside wall of the diffuser because of the curved wall forces fluid to move in a circular path.
A “ Pump Stage ” consists of an impeller, diffuser and thrust washers.As shown by the following figure, the impellers rotate with the shaft and spin at the RPM of the motor. The stationary diffusers turn the fluid into the next impeller and do not rotate. Pumps are assembled by stacking stages on a shaft and compressing the stack in a housing. A stage will produce a given amount of flow and lift (head) at the motor RPM.